Historical & theoretical readings

Alexander, Jocelyn. “Loyalty and Liberation: The Political Life of Zephaniah Moyo.” Journal of Eastern African Studies 11, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 166–87. https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2017.1288419.

Alexander, Jocelyn, and JoAnn McGregor. “Adelante! Military Imaginaries, the Cold War, and Southern Africa’s Liberation Armies.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 62, no. 3 (2020): 619–50. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417520000195.

Alexander, Jocelyn, and JoAnn McGregor. “African Soldiers in the USSR: Oral Histories of ZAPU Intelligence Cadres’ Soviet Training, 1964–1979.” Journal of Southern African Studies 43, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 49–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2017.1272299.

Alexander, Jocelyn, and JoAnn McGregor.. “African Soldiers in the USSR: Oral Histories of ZAPU Intelligence Cadres’ Soviet Training, 1964–1979.” Journal of Southern African Studies 43, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 49–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2017.1272299.

Alexander, Jocelyn, and JoAnn McGregor.. “The Travelling Toyi-Toyi: Soldiers and the Politics of Drill.” Journal of Southern African Studies 46, no. 5 (September 2, 2020): 923–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2020.1804123.

Alexander, Jocelyn, and JoAnn McGregor.. “War Stories: Guerrilla Narratives of Zimbabwe’s Liberation War.” History Workshop Journal 57, no. 1 (March 1, 2004): 79–100. https://doi.org/10.1093/hwj/57.1.79.

Alexander, Jocelyn, JoAnn McGregor, and Blessing-Miles Tendi. Transnational Histories of Southern Africa’s Liberation Movements, 2020.

Alexander, Jocelyn, Pathisa Nyathi, and JoAnn McGregor. Lest We Forget: Histories of the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZPRA). Bulawayo: Amagugu Publishers, 2019.

Barrell, Howard. “Conscripts to Their Age: African National Congress Operational Strategy, 1976-1986.” DPhil, University of Oxford, 1993.

Ben-Ari, Eyal. Mastering Soldiers: Conflict, Emotions, and the Enemy in an Israeli Military Unit. New Directions in Anthropology, v. 10. New York: Berghahn Books, 1998.

Bender, Gerald J. “The Eagle and the Bear in Angola.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 489, no. 1 (1987): 123–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716287489001010.

Bickford, Andrew. Fallen Elites: The Military Other in Post-Unification Germany. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2011.

Bolliger, Lennart. “Apartheid’s African Soldiers: A History of Black Namibian and Angolan Members of South Africa’s Former Security Forces, 1975 to the Present.” DPhil, University of Oxford, 2019.

Bolliger, Lennart, and Will Gordon. “‘Forged in Battle’: The Transnational Origins and Formation of Apartheid South Africa’s 32 ‘Buffalo’ Battalion, 1969–1976.” Journal of Southern African Studies 46, no. 5 (September 2, 2020): 881–901. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2020.1814595.

Bopela, Thula, and Daluxolo Luthuli. Umkhonto We Sizwe: Fighting for a Divided People. Alberton, South Africa : Johannesburg: Galago ; [Distributed by] Thorold’s Africana Books, 2005.

Brickhill, Jeremy. “Daring to Storm the Heavens: The Military Strategy of ZAPU, 1976-1979.” In Soldiers in Zimbabwe’s Liberation War, edited by Ngwabi Bhebe and Terence Ranger. London: James Currey, 1995.

Byrne, Jeffrey James. Mecca of Revolution: Algeria, Decolonization, and the Third World Order. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Cardina, Miguel, and Bruno Sena Martins, eds. As Voltas Do Passado. 1a. edição. Lisboa: Tinta da China, 2018.

Carneiro, Higino. Memórias: Soldado Da Pátria. Luanda: Edições Keve, n.d.

Chivinga, António Ngula. General Kundi Paihama: Uma História de Batalhas e Conquistas. Luanda: Rubricart, 2015.

Christiansen, Samantha, and Zachary A. Scarlett, eds. The Third World in the Global 1960s. Protest, Culture and Society, v. 8. New York: Berghahn Books, 2013.

Collier, Delinda. “A‘New Man’ for Africa? Some Particularities of the Marxist Homem Novo within Angolan Cultural Policy.” In De-Centering Cold War History: Local and Global Change. London & New York: Routledge, n.d.

Dabengwa, Dumiso. “Relations between ZAPU and the USSR, 1960s–1970s: A Personal View.” Journal of Southern African Studies 43, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 215–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2017.1275110.

Dallywater, Lena, Helder Fonseca, and Chris Saunders. Southern African Liberation Movements and the Global Cold War “East”: Transnational Activism 1960-1990. 1st edition. Dialectics of the Global 4. Boston, MA: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2019.

Danilova, Natalia. “Veterans’ Policy in Russia: A Puzzle of Creation.” The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies, no. Issue 6/7 (December 20, 2007). https://doi.org/10.4000/pipss.873.

Danilova, Nataliya, and Kandida Purnell. “The ‘Museumification’ of the Scottish Soldier and the Meaning-Making of Britain’s Wars.” Critical Military Studies 6, no. 3–4 (July 2, 2020): 287–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/23337486.2019.1677042.

David-Fox, Michael. Crossing Borders: Modernity, Ideology, and Culture in Russia and the Soviet Union. Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies. Pittsburgh, Pa: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015.

Davidson, A. B., ed. Rossii︠a︡ i Afrika: Dokumenty i Materialy, 1961--Nachalo 1970-Kh. Moskva: ROSSPĖN (Rossiĭskai︠a︡ politicheskai︠a︡ ėnt︠s︡iklopedii︠a︡), 2021.

Davis, Stephen R. The ANC’s War against Apartheid: Umkhonto We Sizwe and the Liberation of South Africa. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2018.

Ellis, Stephen. External Mission: The ANC in Exile, 1960-1990. Oxford ; New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Ellis, Stephen. “Politics and Crime: Reviewing the ANC’s Exile History.” South African Historical Journal 64, no. 3 (2012): 622–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/02582473.2012.670507.

Enloe, Cynthia H. The Morning after: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Filatova, I. I., and A. B. Davidson. The Hidden Thread: Russia and South Africa in the Soviet Era. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball Publishers, 2013.

Filatova, Irina. “The Lasting Legacy: The Soviet Theory of the National-Democratic Revolution and South Africa.” South African Historical Journal 64, no. 3 (2012): 507–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/02582473.2012.665077.

Fraser. “Yuri Gagarin and Celebrity Masculinity.” In Gender, Sexuality, and the Cold War: A Global Perspective, edited by Philip E. Muehlenbeck. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2017.

Fraser, Erica L. Military Masculinity and Postwar Recovery in the Soviet Union. Toronto ; Buffalo ; London: University of Toronto Press, 2019.

Friedman, Jeremy Scott. Shadow Cold War: The Sino-Soviet Competition for the Third World. The New Cold War History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015.

Frühstück, Sabine. Uneasy Warriors: Gender, Memory, and Popular Culture in the Japanese Army. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Gilder, Barry. Songs and Secrets: South Africa from Liberation to Governance. London: Hurst & Company, 2012.

Gill, Lesley. “Creating Citizens, Making Men: The Military and Masculinity in Bolivia.” Cultural Anthropology 12, no. 4 (1997): 527–50. https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1997.12.4.527.

Gill, Lesley. The School of the Americas: Military Training and Political Violence in the Americas. American Encounters/Global Interactions. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Gleijeses, Piero. Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976. Envisioning Cuba. Chapel Hill, N.C. London: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Gleijeses, Piero. Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976-1991, 2016. http://www.vlebooks.com/vleweb/product/openreader?id=none&isbn=978146961....

Gutmann, Matthew C., and Catherine Lutz. Breaking Ranks: Iraq Veterans Speak out against the War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Hassim, Shireen. “Nationalism, Feminism and Autonomy: The ANC in Exile and the Question of Women.” Journal of Southern African Studies 30, no. 3 (2004): 433–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305707042000254056.

Hayes, Patricia. “Zenzo Nkobi, ZAPU Photographer: Exile, Visibility and the Anteroom of War in Zambia, 1977–1980.” Journal of Southern African Studies 46, no. 5 (September 2, 2020): 941–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2020.1805196.

Henrichsen, Dag, Giorgio Miescher, Ciraj Rassool, and Lorena Rizzo. “Rethinking Empire in Southern Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 41, no. 3 (May 4, 2015): 431–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2015.1037138.

Higate, Paul, ed. Military Masculinities: Identity and the State. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2003.

Hynes, Samuel. The soldiers’ tale bearing witness to modern war. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1998.

Kalinovsky, Artemy M. Laboratory of Socialist Development: Cold War Politics and Decolonization in Soviet Tajikistan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2018.

Katsakioris, Constantin. “Students from Portuguese Africa in the Soviet Union, 1960–74: Anti-Colonialism, Education, and the Socialist Alliance.” Journal of Contemporary History 56, no. 1 (2021): 142–65. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022009419893739.

Kempton, Daniel R. Soviet Strategy toward Southern Africa: The National Liberation Movement Connection. New York: Praeger, 1989.

Kruglova, Anna. “Social Theory and Everyday Marxists: Russian Perspectives on Epistemology and Ethics.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 59, no. 4 (2017): 759–85. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417517000275.

Krylova, Natalia. “Le centre Perevalnoe et la formation de militaires en Union soviétique.” Translated by Sonia Colpart. Cahiers d’études africaines, no. 226 (July 1, 2017): 399–416. https://doi.org/10.4000/etudesafricaines.20728.

Landau, Paul S. “The M-Plan: Mandela’s Struggle to Reorient the African National Congress.” Journal of Southern African Studies 45, no. 6 (November 2, 2019): 1073–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2020.1700663.

Lee, Christopher J. Making a World after Empire: The Bandung Moment and Its Political Afterlives. Ohio University Research in International Studies. Global and Comparative Studies Series, no. 11. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2010.

Lindsay, Lisa A. “Biography in African History.” History in Africa 44 (2017): 11–26. https://doi.org/10.1017/hia.2017.1.

Lissoni, Arianna. “‘Dear Comrade Chief Rep’: Love, Marriage and the Family in the ANC in Exile in Tanzania.” African Studies 76, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/00020184.2017.1285666.

Lissoni, Arianna, Jon Soske, Natasha Erlank, Noor Nieftagodien, and Omar Badsha, eds. One Hundred Years of the ANC: Debating Liberation Histories Today. South Africa: Wits University Press, 2012.

Lodge, Tom, and Milan Oralek. “Fraternal Friends, South African Communists and Czechoslovakia 1945–89.” The Journal of African History 61, no. 2 (2020): 219–39. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021853720000353.

Mabeko Tali, Jean-Michel. Guerrilhas e lutas sociais: o MPLA perante si próprio (1960-1977) : ensaio de história política, 2019.

Mabeko-Tali, Jean-Michel. “Dreaming Together, Fighting for Freedom Together: African Progressive Nationalism and the Ideology of Unity in Portugal’s African Colonies in the 1950s and 1960s.” Journal of Southern African Studies 46, no. 5 (September 2, 2020): 829–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2020.1811518.

Macmillan, Hugh. Jack Simons: Teacher, Scholar, Comrade, 2016.

Macmillan, Hugh. “‘Past History Has Not Been Forgotten’: The ANC/ZAPU Alliance – the Second Phase, 1978–1980.” Journal of Southern African Studies 43, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 179–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2017.1262639.

Macmillan, Hugh. The Lusaka Years: The ANC in Exile in Zambia, 1963-1994. Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana Media, 2013.

Macola, Giacomo. The Gun in Central Africa: A History of Technology and Politics. New African Histories. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2016.

Magadla, Siphokazi. “Women Combatants and the Liberation Movements in South Africa: Guerrilla Girls, Combative Mothers and the in-Betweeners.” African Security Review 24, no. 4 (October 2, 2015): 390–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/10246029.2015.1088645.

Malaquias, Florbela Catarina. Heroínas Da Dignidade. Livro I. 1a. edição. Luanda: Book Link, 2019.

Mark, James, Artemy M. Kalinovsky, and Steffi Marung, eds. Alternative Globalizations: Eastern Europe and the Postcolonial World. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, Office of Scholarly Publishing, Herman B Wells Library, 2020.

Mcsorley, Kevin. War and the Body. London: Routledge, 2015.

Menezes, Hugo José Azancot de, and Carlos Pacheco. Percursos Da Luta de Libertação Nacional: Viagem Ao Interior Do MPLA: Memórias Pessoais. 2a. edição. Lisboa: Vega, 2018.

Millar, Katharine M., and Joanna Tidy. “Combat as a Moving Target: Masculinities, the Heroic Soldier Myth, and Normative Martial Violence.” Critical Military Studies 3, no. 2 (May 4, 2017): 142–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/23337486.2017.1302556.

Muehlenbeck, Philip E., ed. Gender, Sexuality, and the Cold War: A Global Perspective. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2017.

Ndlovu, Mary. “ZAPU Through Zenzo Nkobi’s Lens.” South African History Archive. Accessed November 9, 2020. http://www.saha.org.za/publications/zapu_through_zenzo_nkobis_lens.htm.

Nyathi, Pathisa. The Story of a ZPRA Cadre: Nicholas Macala Dube. Bulawayo: Amagugu, 2014.

Pacavira, Manuel Pedro. Memórias 1974/76: Angola e o Movimento Revolucionário Dos Capitães de Abril Em Portugal. Luanda: QB Comunicação, 2008.

Paredes, Margarida. Combater Duas Vezes: Mulheres Na Luta Armada Em Angola. 1a. edição. Vila do Conde: Verso da História, 2015.

Pearce, Justin. “Global Ideologies, Local Politics: The Cold War as Seen from Central Angola.” Journal of Southern African Studies 43, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 13–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2017.1266809.

Pearce, Justin. Political Identity and Conflict in Central Angola, 1975-2002. Cambridge, 2015.

Pena, Esteves B. I. Primeiro o angolano, segundo o angolano ... angolano sempre: os discursos do Dr. Jonas Malheiro Savimbi, 2019.

Pikovskaia, Kristina. “‘We Could Not Be There’: Storytelling and the Narratives of Soviet Military Advisers, Specialists and Interpreters in Angola during the Civil War (1975–1992).” Journal of Southern African Studies 46, no. 5 (September 2, 2020): 903–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2020.1797355.

Prashad, Vijay. The Poorer Nations: A Possible History of the Global South. London ; New York: Verso, 2012.

Ricks, Thomas E. Making the Corps. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 1998. https://archive.org/details/makingcorps00rick.

Rodrigues, José. Entrevistas Com a Historia. 1a. edição. Colecção Biblioteca Da História. Luanda: Mayamba Editora, 2018.

Roque, Paula Cristina. “The Rebel Governance of the SPLM/A and UNITA.” DPhil, University of Oxford, 2018.

Sanina, Anna. Patriotic Education in Contemporary Russia: Sociological Studies in the Making of the Post-Soviet Citizen. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, vol. 168. Stuttgart: Ibidem, 2017.

Sapire, Hilary, and Christopher C. Saunders, eds. Southern African Liberation Struggles: New Local, Regional and Global Perspectives. Claremont, South Africa: UCT Press, 2013.

Sasson-Levy, Orna. “Individual Bodies, Collective State Interests: The Case of Israeli Combat Soldiers.” Men and Masculinities 10, no. 3 (2008): 296–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X06287760.

Saunders, Christopher C, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, and Documentation Project on the Liberation Struggles in Southern Africa. Documenting Liberation Struggles in Southern Africa: Select Papers from the Nordic Africa Documentation Project Workshop, 26-27 November 2009, Pretoria, South Africa. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2010. http://nai.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:344963/FULLTEXT01.

Schechter, Brandon M. The Stuff of Soldiers: A History of the Red Army in World War II through Objects. Battlegrounds: Cornell Studies in Military History. Ithaca [New York]: Cornell University Press, 2019.

Shubin, G. V., and A. A. Tokarev, eds. Bush War: The Road to Cuito Cuanavale: Soviet Soldiers’s Accounts of the Angolan War. Johannesburg: Jacana, 2011.

Shubin, V. G. ANC: A View from Moscow. 2nd rev. ed. Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana Media, 2008.

Shubin, Vladimir. “Moscow and Zimbabwe’s Liberation.” Journal of Southern African Studies 43, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 225–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2017.1275108.

Shubin, Vladimir. “Unsung Heroes: The Soviet Military and the Liberation of Southern Africa.” Cold War History 7, no. 2 (2007): 251–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/14682740701284157.

Sibanda, Eliakim M. The Zimbabwe African People’s Union, 1961-87: A Political History of Insurgency in Southern Rhodesia. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2005.

Simpson, Thula. “Main Machinery: The ANC’s Armed Underground in Johannesburg During the 1976 Soweto Uprising.” African Studies 70, no. 3 (2011): 415–36. https://doi.org/10.1080/00020184.2011.628801.

Simpson, Thula. “Mandela’s Army: Urban Revolt in South Africa, 1960–1964.” Journal of Southern African Studies 45, no. 6 (November 2, 2019): 1093–1110. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2019.1688619.

Simpson, Thula. “Military Combat Work: The Reconstitution of the ANC’s Armed Underground, 1971–1976.” African Studies 70, no. 1 (2011): 103–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/00020184.2011.557579.

Simpson, Thula. “The Making (and Remaking) of a Revolutionary Plan: Strategic Dilemmas of the ANC’s Armed Struggle, 1974–1978.” Social Dynamics 35, no. 2 (2009): 312–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/02533950903076410.

Simpson, Thula. “Toyi-Toyi-Ing to Freedom: The Endgame in the ANC’s Armed Struggle, 1989–1990.” Journal of Southern African Studies 35, no. 2 (2009): 507–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070902920015.

Simpson, Thula. Umkhonto We Sizwe: The ANC’s Armed Struggle. Cape Town, South Africa: Penguin Books, 2016.

Simpson, Thula. “‘Umkhonto We Sizwe, We Are Waiting for You’: The ANC and the Township Uprising, September 1984 – September 1985.” South African Historical Journal 61, no. 1 (2009): 158–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/02582470902812327.

Slobodian, Quinn, ed. Comrades of Color: East Germany in the Cold War World. First paperback edition. Protest, Culture, and Society, Volume 15. New York Oxford: Berghahn, 2017.

Stevens, Simon. “Violence, Political Strategy and the Turn to Guerrilla Warfare by the Congress Movement in South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 47, no. 6 (November 2, 2021): 1011–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2021.1974224.

Stiff, Peter. The Silent War: South African Recce Operations, 1969-1994. Alberton [South Africa]: Galago, 1999.

———. Warfare by Other Means: South Africa in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Alberton, S.A: Galago Pub, 2001.

Strachan, Hew. “Training, Morale and Modern War.” Journal of Contemporary History 41, no. 2 (2006): 211–27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022009406062054.

Telepneva, Natalia. Cold War Liberation: The Soviet Union and the Collapse of the Portuguese Empire in Africa, 1961-1975. The New Cold War History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2021.

Trewhela, Paul. Inside Quatro: Uncovering the Exile History of the ANC and SWAPO. Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana Media, 2009.

Twala, Mwezi, and Ed Benard. Mbokodo: Inside MK: Mwezi Twala: A Soldier’s Story. Johannesburg: J. Ball Publishers, 1994.

Ushakin, S. The Patriotism of Despair: Nation, War, and Loss in Russia. Culture and Society after Socialism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009.

Werner, Michael, and Benedicte Zimmermann. “Beyond Comparison: Histoire Croisée and the Challenge of Reflexivity.” History and Theory 45, no. 1 (2006): 30–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2303.2006.00347.x.

Westad, Odd Arne. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. 1st pbk. ed. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

White, Luise. “‘Heading for the Gun’: Skills and Sophistication in an African Guerrilla War.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 51, no. 2 (2009): 236–59. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417509000115.

White, Luise. “Students, ZAPU, and Special Branch in Francistown, 1964–1972.” Journal of Southern African Studies 40, no. 6 (November 2, 2014): 1289–1303. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2014.964908.

White, Luise, and Miles Larmer. “Introduction: Mobile Soldiers and the Un-National Liberation of Southern Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 40, no. 6 (November 2, 2014): 1271–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2014.967487.

Williams, Christian A. “Exile Biography and Un-National History: The Story of Kaufilwa Nepelilo.” Journal of Eastern African Studies 11, no. 1 (January 2, 2017): 151–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/17531055.2017.1288414.

Williams, Christian A. National Liberation in Postcolonial Southern Africa: A Historical Ethnography of SWAPO’s Exile Camps, 2015.

Alexei Yurchak. (2006) Everything Was Forever, Until It Was No More: The Last Soviet
Generation. Princeton University Press 

Алексей Юрчак. (2020) Это было навсегда, пока не кончилось. Последнее советское
поколение. Новое литературное обозрение. Москва.